National Climate Change Policy Framework
Kenya has demonstrated significant progress in addressing climate change through a multi-faceted approach. Efforts include creating an inclusive environment for stakeholders in climate action, guided by the Constitution’s emphasis on environmental preservation.
The National Climate Change Response (NCCRS) and National Climate Change Action Plan I (NCCAP) have focused on understanding global climate change, recommending adaptation measures, and enhancing resilience in sectors such as water and agriculture. Challenges include limited expertise and resources.
The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) integrates climate adaptation into national and county-level planning, aligning with international agreements and Vision 2030. Kenya’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) emphasizes equal adaptation and mitigation, while the Climate Change Act establishes a regulatory framework. Collaboration between national and county governments, as well as the NCCAP II, prioritise disaster management, food security, water, forestry, tourism, health, sanitation, manufacturing, energy, and transport, ensuring a comprehensive, integrated strategy for climate resilience

National Climate Change Action Plan – 2nd Year Progress Report 2019-2020
The 2nd NCCAP implementation report, covering July 2019 to June 2020, highlights substantial progress in Kenya’s climate action agenda across various sectors, including disaster risk management, food security, water resources, forestry, wildlife, health, manufacturing, energy, and transportation.
Notable achievements encompass expanded climate information services, reforestation efforts, renewable energy generation, and enhanced water resource management. Lessons learned underscore the necessity for increased stakeholder awareness, functional coordination units, and diversified financial support from government and non-state entities.
Recommendations include targeted sensitization for streamlined monitoring, case-study-focused progress reporting, and adoption of a biennial reporting cycle, investment in robust data management systems, and dedicated protection of climate finance to ensure uninterrupted implementation.
The Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) process plays a central role in tracking the progress of climate actions at national and county levels, measuring target achievements, monitoring resource utilization, and assessing the impact of actions and support.
MRV is integral to the transparency framework of the Climate Convention and Paris
Agreement, necessitating institutional coordination, indicator definition, policy frameworks, data collection systems, quality control, technical capacity, and feedback mechanisms. Kenya’s Climate Change Act establishes a robust MRV system, outlining responsibilities for reporting, verification, and review at various levels, involving state departments, public entities, private sector entities, and county assemblies.
The Act’s provisions encompass GHG emissions regulation, sectoral reporting, performance monitoring, evaluations, and gender equity. The National Climate Change Action Plans (NCCAP) emphasize strategic objectives, including disaster risk management, food security, water and the blue economy, forestry and wildlife, health and human settlements, manufacturing, and energy and transport, delineating actions, indicators, targets, and institutional roles for sustainable climate action and development.
Climate change refers to a lasting alteration in the climate that persists for over 30 years and is attributed to human activities leading to increased greenhouse gases. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was established to combat this phenomenon. The UNFCCC holds annual climate summits known as COPs, with COP 21 resulting in the Paris Agreement aiming to limit global warming below 2°C.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assesses climate risks and impacts; their latest report highlights unequivocal human influence on warming and predicts temperature increase by up to 5.7°C by the century’s end, leading to severe impacts like sea level rise, extreme weather events, and shifts in precipitation patterns.
These changes have ramifications across sectors: agriculture faces reduced yields, energy, and infrastructure experience damages, health sees increased disease incidences, and education is disrupted. Climate change response involves mitigation (reducing emissions) and adaptation (coping with impacts), requiring finance, technology, and capacity building.
The National Climate Change Response Strategy, Action Plan, Adaptation Plan, and Climate Change Act shape Kenya’s response, while energy conservation and efficiency measures mitigate emissions. Renewable energy, such as hydro and solar, contributes to mitigation. Adaptation strategies include improved urban drainage systems, climate-smart agriculture, and ecosystem-based approaches like urban watershed management and ecosystem-based adaptation.
Climate change, a pressing global concern, demands unified global action despite challenges in consensus-building due to diverse economic, socio-cultural, and political interests.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have played pivotal roles in providing scientific assessments and facilitating collaborative efforts.
The IPCC’s reports underscore the need for rapid transitions to limit temperature rise to 1.5°C, while the UNFCCC’s Conference of Parties (COP) serves as a decision-making platform. Notably, the Paris Agreement necessitated Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), leading to commitments like Kenya’s goal to reduce emissions by 32% by 2030, with international support playing a vital role in achieving comprehensive climate resilience and development.
Overview of National Climate Change Action Plan 2018-2022
Kenya’s comprehensive approach to addressing climate change and fostering sustainable development is exemplified through its National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP). Enshrined within the Climate Change Act of 2016, the NCCAP serves as a five-year iterative tool, prioritizing the integration of climate change responses across all sectors of the economy.
By anchoring its strategies in national and county planning processes, engaging diverse stakeholders, and establishing legal frameworks, Kenya ensures the mainstreaming of climate priorities.
The plan’s emphasis on both adaptation and mitigation is underscored by its seven priority areas, including;

  1. Disaster risk management.
  2. Food security.
  3. Water resilience.
  4. Forestry.
  5. Health.
  6. Manufacturing.
  7. Energy.
    Through these measures, Kenya not only acknowledges climate change’s crosscutting impact but also demonstrates a proactive commitment to fostering a sustainable and climate-resilient future.

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